An intimidating ornament in a female pipefish

If mate choice is costly, an individual may reduce the costs of choice by observing and copying the mate choice of others.

Although copying has received much attention during the past 10 years, evidence of copying is not very strong, partly because of problems with distinguishing copying from other mechanisms creating similar mating patterns.

Once born, the fry spend two to three weeks drifting with plankton in the ocean, making them very susceptible to predation. Pipefish, on the other hand, use a slightly different method.

These seahorse cousins have similar-looking mouths and tiny bodies, but appear more stretched-out than seahorses.

There, they fertilize the eggs and carry them until the offspring hatch a couple weeks later.

Alternatively, you can download the file locally and open with any standalone PDF reader: Maria Sandvik Widemo 0 1 2 0 The Author 2005. Received 7 March 2005; revised 20 October 2005; accepted 11 November 2005 2 Department of Population Biology, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University , Norbyvagen 18 D, SE-752 36 Uppsala, Sweden If mate choice is costly, an individual may reduce the costs of choice by observing and copying the mate choice of others.

Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology. Although copying has received much attention during the past 10 years, evidence of copying is not very strong, partly because of problems with distinguishing copying from other mechanisms creating similar mating patterns.

A courtship display is a set of display behaviors in which an animal attempts to attract a mate and exhibit their desire to copulate.

These behaviors often include ritualized movement ("dances"), vocalizations, mechanical sound production, or displays of beauty, strength, or agonistic ability.

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